Recolta de porumb a UE – cea mai mică după 2019, din cauza secetei

Majoritatea culturilor de porumb din întreaga Europă sunt afectate de temperaturile foarte ridicate care fac ca apa din sol să fie din ce în ce mai puțină, iar în unele părți inexistentă pentru agricultură. Semănat primăvara, porumbul este afectat, în principal, de lipsa de precipitaţii, care ar fi trebuit să asigure creșterea plantațiilor, în această perioadă.

Trei sferturi din teritoriul României – cel mai mare producător european de porumb în 2021 – este afectat acum de diferite grade de secetă. Pentru a salva ce mai pot din plantațiile de porumb, mulți dintre fermierii români au luat decizia de a începe recoltarea mai devreme decât de obicei.

„Situaţia din acest an este foarte complicată. Am intervenit atât cât am putut pentru a creşte nivelul irigaţiilor, dar în multe zone nu a fost posibil, aşa că o mare parte din cultură este afectată”, a precizat ministrul Agriculturii, Petre Daea, România fiind în urma altor state în ceea ce privește extinderea sistemelor de irigaţii.

Franţa, care este al doilea mare cultivator de porumb din UE, a înregistrat cea mai secetoasă lună iulie din istorie și este de așteptat ca recolta din acest an să fie mult diminuată. La rândul lor, fermierii din unele părţi din estul Germaniei ar putea pierde întreaga recoltă de porumb, tot din cauza lipsei de precipitații.

„Sezonul acesta era unul în care porumbul european urma să aibă o importanţă crescută pentru a acoperi golul în aprovizionare creat de situaţia din Ucraina. Însă în condiţiile în care culturile de porumb din UE au de suferit, iar estimările de producţie sunt revizuite, aprovizionarea cu cereale va fi supusă la noi presiuni”, susţine Peter Collier, analist la CRM AgriCommodities, citat de Agerpres.

Pe fondul secetei foarte mari, Uniunea Europeană şi-a redus estimările la recolta de porumb din acest sezon la 65,8 milioane de tone, ceea ce înseamnă că va fi cea mai redusă recoltă după cea din 2018/2019. Asta în condițiile în care cifrele ar putea fi revizuite şi mai mult, dacă seceta se va accentua, așa cum este de așteptat în Franţa şi alte ţări.

În luna iulie, Comisia Europeană a prezentat o primă evaluare a situației privind seceta din Europa, care a arătat că o mare parte a teritoriului agricol al blocului comunitar este expusă secetei la niveluri de avertizare (46 % din UE) și de alertă (11 % din UE), asociate cu un deficit mare de precipitații în sol.

Printre țările care se confruntă cu o scădere a randamentului culturilor, pe fondul secetei, se numără Franța, România, Spania, Portugalia și Italia. Într-o anumită măsură sunt, de asemenea, afectate Germania, Polonia, Ungaria, Slovenia și Croația.

Laura Groșereanu

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